DYS (difficulty)+ LEXIA (language)
“Dyslexi eller specifika läs- och skrivsvårigheter är en varaktig funktionsnedsättning som innebär svårigheter med att läsa och/eller skriva. Funktionsnedsättningen beror på en störning i vissa språkliga funktioner som hindrar automatisering av ordavkodningen. Dyslexi är inte relaterat till intelligensnivå.”
With Dyslexia Words Failed, Then Saved Me
“We know now that dyslexia is about so much more than just mixing up letters — that many dyslexics have difficulty with rhythm and meter and word retrieval, that they struggle to recognize voices and sounds. It’s my profound hope that our schools can use findings like these to better teach children who struggle to read, to help them overcome their limitations, and to help them understand that it’s not their fault.
We knew so much less when I was a child. Then, all I wanted and needed, when I learned so painstakingly to read and then to write, was to find a way to be less alone. Which is, of course, what spoken and written language is really all about.
But poetry should be a matter of passion, not survival.”
The only way is up: Risk factors, protective factors, and compensation in dyslexia
“In summary, this study showed that gifted children with dyslexia outperform averagely intelligent children with dyslexia on literacy skills and that they have a unique cognitive profile characterized by both deficits related to their dyslexia and strengths associated with their giftedness. Findings suggest that weaknesses in phonology could be moderated by strengths in Working Memory and general language ability. This renders reading and spelling ability levels that are not as low as in averagely intelligent children with dyslexia, which in turn, frustrates early signaling and referral. Overall, it can be stated that gifted children with dyslexia form a special group within the population of children with dyslexia as well as the population of gifted children with Learning Disabilities.”
Scottish Network for Able Pupils, University of Glasgow Faculty of Education
“Defining able pupils with dyslexia is not an easy task. Part of the problem is that many people become involved in working with these children: the psychology profession, the educational profession, even the medical profession, and everyone wants a definition that serves their own purposes. Able pupils with dyslexia belong to a largely unidentified population, sometimes also referred to as twice exceptional children. Not only do these children often remain unidentified because interest in research in this area has only recently increased, but also because able pupils with dyslexia can cover their difficulties by their high abilities. At the same time, their difficulties may cover their high abilities making identification, at least with the current methods, challenging.”
Learning Disorder or Asset?” An Excerpt From “The Dyslexic Advantage”
“This claim usually provokes surprise and a flurry of questions: “Good because of their dyslexia? Isn’t dyslexia a learning disorder? How could a learning disorder make people good at anything?”
The answer is, a learning disorder couldn’t—if it were only a learning disorder. But that’s just our point, and it’s the key message of this book. Dyslexia, or the dyslexic processing style, isn’t just a barrier to learning how to read and spell; it’s also a reflection of an entirely different pattern of brain organization and information processing—one that predisposes a person to important abilities along with the well-known challenges. This dual nature is what’s so amazing—and confusing—about dyslexia. It’s also why individuals with dyslexia can look so different depending upon the perspective from which we view them.”
Tecken på dyslexi i olika åldrar
Checklista för dyslexi
För/om vuxna: “Cognitive Diversity and Dyslexia in Today’s Workplace”
Dyslexics show a difference in sensory processing
Stealth dyslexia/ Dold dyslexi
“This frustrating pattern is all too familiar to anyone familiar with 2e children. They have impairments severe enough to significantly impair learning and school performance, but not severe enough to be recognized or to qualify for appropriate services or accommodations. Like many 2e children, gifted stealth dyslexics often “fall between the cracks,” so that the nature of their problem goes unrecognized.”
Stealth Dyslexia: How Some Dyslexic Students Escape Detection
“Stealth dyslexia is a term to identify students who flew under the radar for detection because of their other higher order thinking strengths. Stealth dyslexic students may be able compensate for problems decoding words on the basis of sound (phonological awareness) by skipping words they don’t know or filling-in the gaps by guessing or inference or general knowledge.”
High Reading Skills Mask Dyslexia in Gifted Children
“In summary, this study showed that gifted children with dyslexia outperform children with dyslexia on literacy skills and that they have a unique cognitive profile characterized by both deficits related to dyslexia and strengths associated with giftedness. Weaknesses in phonology seem to be moderated by strengths in WM and general language ability. This renders reading and spelling ability levels that are not as low as in averagely intelligent children with dyslexia, which in turn frustrates early signaling and referral … it can be stated that gifted children with dyslexia form a special group within the population of children with dyslexia as well as the population of gifted children with LD. They require their own broader diagnostic criteria that take into account their high intelligence, and effects of masking and compensation should not be underestimated.”
How children learn to read
“Hoeft’s group (…) has found that stealth dyslexics display a unique dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. That’s the part of the brain that is responsible, among other things, for executive function and self-control. In stealth dyslexics, it seems to be particularly well-developed. That may be partly genetic, but, Hoeft says, it may also point to a particular educational experience: “If it’s superior executive function that is helping some kids develop despite genetic predisposition to the contrary, that is really good news, because that is something we do well—we know how to train executive function.”
DYS (difficulty) + GRAPHIA (writing)
“Dysgrafi är en specifik störning av förmågan att skriva.
Vid dysgrafi finns troligen en dysfunktion någonstans i kedjan från språk- till handmotorikcentra i hjärnan. Kopplingen är antingen för långsam eller för snabb. Problemet är oberoende av begåvning och intelligens. Även andra problem med koordinationen mellan hjärnan och handen kan förekomma, exempelvis problem med att knyta skorna som liten. Svårigheter kan förekomma vad gäller att hålla isär vissa bokstäver, som p och q eller b och d. Bokstäverna får ofta olika storlek eller lutningar.”
“In a person with dysgraphia, experts believe one or both of the next steps in the writing process go off track:
- Organizing information that is stored in memory
- Getting words onto paper by handwriting or typing them
This results in a written product that’s hard to read and filled with errors. And most important, it does not convey what the child knows and what he intended to write.”
The Five Types of Dysgraphia
Interventions for Dysgraphia
“When the writing task is the primary barrier to learning or demonstrating knowledge, then accommodations, modifications, and remediation for these problems may be in order. How can a teacher determine when and what accommodations are merited? The teacher should meet with the student and/or parent(s), to express concern about the student’s writing and listen to the student’s perspective. It is important to stress that the issue is not that the student can’t learn the material or do the work, but that the writing problems may be interfering with learning instead of helping. Discuss how the student can make up for what writing doesn’t seem to be providing — are there other ways he can be sure to be learning? Are there ways to learn to write better? How can writing assignments be changed to help her learn the most from those assignments? From this discussion, everyone involved can build a plan of accommodations, modifications, and remediation that will engage the student in reaching his or her best potential. Examples of ways to accommodate, modify, and remediate follow.”
Diagnostic Checklist of Writing Disability
Linda Kreger Silverman
- Is his posture awkward?
- Does he hold his pencil strangely?
- Can you see the tension run though his hand, arm, furrowed brow?
- Does it take him much longer to write than anyone else his age?
- Does he fatigue easily and want to quit?
- Does he space his letters on the paper in an unusual way?
- Does he form his letters oddly?
- Does he mix upper and lower case letters?
- Does he mix cursive and manuscript?
- Are his cursive letters disconnected?
- Does he prefer manuscript to cursive after others have switched to cursive?
- Does his lettering lack fluidity? (looks like chicken-scratching)
- Does he still reverse letters after age 7?
- Is his handwriting illegible?
- Is his spelling terrible?
- Does he avoid writing words he can’t spell?
- Does he leave off the endings of words?
- Does he confuse singulars and plurals?
- Does he mix up small words, like “the” and “they”?
- Does he leave out soft sounds, like the “d” in gardener?
- Is his grasp of phonics weak? (Is it difficult to decipher what he was trying to write?)”
The Difference Between Dysgraphia and Dyslexia
“Dyslexia and dysgraphia are both learning issues. Dyslexia primarily affects reading. Dysgraphia mainly affects writing. While they’re different issues, the two are easy to confuse. They share symptoms and often occur together.”
DYS (difficulty) + CALCULIA (counting)
“Dyskalkyli är specifika matematiksvårigheter”
“För en mindre grupp personer kan det vara svårt att hitta en förklaring till matematiksvårigheterna. De kan prestera bra inom alla andra områden. Det kan då handla om specifika räknesvårigheter, eller dyskalkyli. Begreppet dyskalkyli är fortfarande omtvistat, men allt fler forskare sluter upp bakom teorin om att vissa personer har en nedsatt förmåga att uppfatta antal och mängder. Detta kan leda till problem med grundläggande räkning, som addition, subtraktion, multiplikation och division, vilket i sin tur ställer till problem inom andra matematiska områden. “
Projekt Unge med matematikvanskeligheder – Dyskalkuli
What is Dyscalculia? – Fast Facts
Matematikvanskeligheder – Dyskalkuli
Dyskalkuli & matematik
“Dyskalkuli er en medicinsk, psykologisk og pædagogisk diagnose, hvor der dog kan foreligge en følelsesmæssig blokering.”
Dyscalculia in an Award-Winning Mathematician
“Emma King was a PhD candidate in Physics at the University of Nottingham when she talked about her dyscalculia. Is it possible to have trouble with basic calculations and arithmetic but excel at higher math? Answer: YES. Learn more about Dyscalculia“
DYS (difficulty) + PRAXIS (to act)
“Dyspraxi är en funktionsnedsättning som innebär att personen har svårt att koordinera sina muskelrörelser. Detta kan yttra sig genom svårigheter med talet, (svårt att kontrollera både uttal och volym), svårigheter med finmotorik (exempelvis problem med att klä sig, fingerfärdighetskrävande uppgifter eller att skriva för hand) och grovmotorik, (exempelvis hålla balansen eller hoppa) eller svårigheter med den rumsliga uppfattningen, till exempel vid fysisk aktivitet. Motorisk dyspraxi kan innebära att personen lättare ramlar eller springer in i dörrposter.”
The impact of handwriting difficulties on compositional quality in children with developmental coordination disorder
“This study has shown that difficulties with transcription have real implications for the quality of text produced by children. The quality of the written composition is what is judged in the educational system, yet handwriting serves as the crucial medium through which it is produced. The clinical implications of this study relate not only to the importance of intervention but in the approaches that occupational therapists apply when addressing difficulties with handwriting. Therapists need to think beyond the motor aspects of handwriting skill and look at the broader aspects of writing, such as spelling and compositional skill. While it is apparent that children with DCD need support to acquire efficient skills in handwriting, further research needs to be undertaken to examine whether strategies specifically to enhance the quality of their compositional skills would be beneficial.”
”Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a motor skills disorder that affects five to six percent of all school-aged children. .. DCD occurs when a delay in the development of motor skills, or difficulty coordinating movements, results in a child being unable to perform common, everyday tasks. By definition, children with DCD do not have an identifiable medical or neurological condition that explains their coordination problems.
Frequently described as “clumsy” or “awkward” by their parents and teachers, children with DCD have difficulty mastering simple motor activities, such as tying shoes or going down stairs, and are unable to perform age-appropriate academic and self-care tasks. Some children may experience difficulties in a variety of areas while others may have problems only with specific activitie … Children with DCD usually have normal or above average intellectual abilities. However, their motor coordination difficulties may impact their academic progress, social integration and emotional development.”
Joint hypermobility in children: what it is and how it affects fitness and motor skills
“There are several reasons why children with joint hypermobility have difficulties with handwriting, including:
- poor control of the movements needed for handwriting: pencil grip and finger movements, shoulder movements and sitting posture
- poor control of the strokes needed for drawing and forming letters including poor ability to ability to preplan movements and draw /print straight and curved lines without continuous visual guidance
- poor development of motor plans for the letters allowing for fluent and fast writing with minimal attention to letter formation”
The Visual-Spatial Learner in School
“There are two main ways of organizing the world. These are spatial (using space) and sequential (using time). Spatial people tend to use space as a whole. They get a sudden “aha” recognition of patterns or significant relationships that they see in their mind. Sequential people organize information by following a logical sequence of steps to a conclusion. Even when they are organizing space, they do it in a linear, orderly way, such as writing from left to right, or building an outline from the top down. There are also two basic learning styles: visual-spatial and auditory-sequential”
Poor Handwriting: A Major Cause of Underachievement
“Visual-spatial learners have a more difficult time putting their ideas into words than auditory-sequential learners who think in words. They may see the image clearly in their minds, but not be able to retrieve the words that go with the picture. It often takes them more time, and school, for them, is often a race against time. When the words fail them, they become anxious, and the anxiety further blocks the translation process from image to words. Timed situations skyrocket their anxiety.”
I Think in Pictures, You Teach in Words: The Gifted Visual Spatial Learner
“The second (type) is children who are brighter than their IQ scores, who have great ability in visual spatial processing and marked weaknesses in auditory sequential processing. These children are often not identified as gifted and they struggle at school because their intelligence is not recognised and neither is their unique learning style.”
Patterns in Writing
Pros and Cons “T” Table
The Ultimate Cheatsheet for Critical Thinking
Taking Notes in Picture Form
“DysseAppen är en unik app för dig som har dyslexi. Med DyssAppen blir skolan lättare och roligare. I appen hittar du: Poddar, Smarta tips, Dyssa! och Verktygslåda.”
CallScotland, Communication, Access, Literacy and Learning
“We help children and young people across Scotland to overcome disability and barriers to learning created by their environment, and to fulfil their potential.
We’ve been around since 1983 working as a Research and Development centre as well as a working Service unit. Both elements are necessary and important – they inform, enrich and support each other.
Our mission is…
To provide pupils and families, local authorities and professionals with –
- Strategic Leadership
- Pupil Assessment and Support
- Professional Learning and Training
- Specialist Information and Expert Advice
- Assistive Technology Loans and Technical Support
- Knowledge Transfer, Research and Development”
”En elev med läs- och skrivsvårigheter behöver ofta alternativa verktyg för att ta till sig kunskap. Samma elev kan behöva använda alternativa metoder för att redovisa sina kunskaper. Det kan ske muntligt, men även med till exempel med film, bild och ljud.”
”Alla skolböcker ska finnas inlästa av inläsningstjänst. Inloggning till inläsningstjänst ska man få av skolan.”
”Du som har en läsnedsättning kan låna våra böcker. Låna talböcker genom att ladda ner eller gå till ditt lokala bibliotek. ”